Over the past months, I have been writing posts about my latest book, A Language School as a Complex System (here, here, and here). At this point some of you might be wondering what makes complexity helpful, and in what ways is a complexity-informed account of language education more useful than a more traditional one? The paragraphs that follow are a revised extract from my book (pp. 20-21), where I attempt to answer these questions:
Describing an entity like a school as a complex system looks deceptively simple, but is fraught with challenges. One set of difficulties that we will immediately confront relates to how we might define the system – where do we draw the lines around the system?
When thinking of a school, these lines seem to be suggested by the real world. Schools have very unambiguous topological perimeters, such as building walls or schoolyard fences that separate the school from the community in which it is embedded. They also have recognisable temporal boundaries: we can, for example, decide to concern ourselves only with what teachers and students do between the start and the end of the school day. Or maybe we could focus on what happens to a child between their first and last day at school.
Even if the borders of a complex system are suggested by the physical and social worlds, these borders are somehow ‘fuzzy’.
But even with the clarity provided by such unambiguous limits, it is hard to know what to do with contextual influences, such as decisions by policy makers, or the activity of the students’ parents. It is equally unclear how to account for societal attitudes and expectations. The problem with these is that they are shaped outside the school, but are embodied by the teachers and students, so they reside – in different senses – both inside and outside the school at the same time. One might argue that even if the borders of a complex system are suggested by the physical and social worlds, these borders are somehow ‘fuzzy’.
Another set of difficulties pertains to group membership. Thinking again of the example of a school, there there is a certain illusion of unambiguousness. Teachers are either members of the faculty or they are not; students are either enrolled in a course or they are not. We might, then, be forgiven for thinking that we can enumerate the components of a system by consulting the organigram, payroll and student register.
The problem with this line of reasoning is that the school is not just an aggregate of individual students and teachers. It also includes learning resources, syllabuses, buildings and desks, which may (or may not) need to be included in our description. It even includes non-concrete entities, like attitudes and expectations, ideologies and traditions that need to be accounted for. Most importantly, it includes a dense web of relationships that connect all these entities with each other. There is a reason why we call these systems complex.
In the holistic description of a system, borders and inventories of components are of secondary importance
But if we cannot even agree on how to define a system, and what its components are, how can we presume to study it? The answer to this question takes us back to the definition of systems in the previous sections (see here). We focus on describing the system as a whole, not with reference to individual constituents. This is something that will perhaps become clearer in the chapters that follow, where I describe a language school as a complex system. In this description, I do not concern myself with an exact specification of the system’s boundaries or an inventory of the components which could potentially be included in its definition. What I will describe, instead, are the outcomes of their interaction, or – put differently – the phenomena that I observe in the collective activity of the school. In such a holistic description, borders and inventories are of secondary importance.
I hope you enjoyed reading this extract. My publishers are keen that I make you aware that the book can be ordered through Amazon, or directly from the publishers’ website. I have tried to keep the price down by forfeiting any royalties, and I hope that you find the content of the book interesting enough to justify investing the price the publishers charge. I will be sharing more extracts in this space, and I am looking forward to your feedback!